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Ideas that have Helped Mankind Summary in English & Hindi Free Online

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Ideas that have Helped Mankind Summary in English

Ideas that have Helped Mankind Summary in English: In this article, we will provide all students with a summary of Ideas that have Helped Mankind in English. Also, in this article, we will also provide Ideas that have Helped Mankind Summary in English for ease of students. Our only goal is to help students prepare for the upcoming exams. We have extracted a summary of all chapters of and have uploaded them in English and English for easy understanding and quick learning. If you have questions regarding the Ideas that have Helped Mankind Summary in English please let us know in the comments.

Ideas that have Helped Mankind Summary in English


Ideas that have Helped Mankind








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Ideas that have Helped Mankind Summary in English

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Bertrand Russell in his essay 'Ideas That Have Helped Mankind' throws light on the development of human civilization which gradually came into existence. It took a long time for us to become the shape we find around us.

Whatever we have achieved is not the result of one day or the weak. The factors which helped mankind to reach the recent stage are important. Thousands of years ago mankind was uncivilized and was living the life of wild animals. In those days they were living in forests and caves like other wild animals. They had body hair to protect them from hot summers and colds, although not very thick and long, their lives were quite precarious and unsafe with the increase in their population. He felt himself more secure than before. They were now more civilized and less animal-like in some respects. This was also due to his better mental system. This laid the foundation for his home life.

The author tells about the diversity of Ananda. He explains that animals did not enjoy music, poetry. Science, football etc. which are enjoyed by man. This means, our intelligences have certainly enabled us to have a lot more diversity than animals. But the author knows that it is neither the number nor the abundance of pleasures that glorified man. Rather it was our intellectual and moral qualities, and it is a fact that we know more than animals. Within the herd we were more friendly towards each other, but outside the herd we were no less cruel than any animal in our attitude.

The ideas which helped and were related to mankind the most can be divided into two types- (i) those that contributed to knowledge and technology and (ii) those that were related to ethics and politics. With his knowledge and technique, he introduced the language and it started slowly. He further invented fire before or after the introduction of language. According to the author, fire can be used to keep wild animals away in the first phase. But over time he found fire more useful for other purposes as well. It was also used for cooking and thus began the long history of cooking.

Domestic animals like cow and sheep made life of man pleasant and safe. Some anthropologists believe that people began to devote time to these animals, which their religions taught them to worship. Animal husbandry was an invention of agriculture. The art of writing was introduced in the last prehistoric inventions of mankind. Writing evolved slowly and it took thousands of years to become what it is in its present form.

Ideas that have Helped Mankind Summary in Hindi

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बर्ट्रेंड रसेल ने अपने निबंध 'आइडियाज़ दैट हैव हेल्प मैनकाइंड' में मानव सभ्यता के विकास पर प्रकाश डाला है जो धीरे-धीरे अस्तित्व में आया। हमें अपने आस-पास जो आकार मिलता है, उसे बनने में काफी समय लगा।

हमने जो कुछ भी हासिल किया है वह एक दिन या कमजोर का नतीजा नहीं है। जिन कारकों ने मानव जाति को हाल के चरण तक पहुँचने में मदद की, वे महत्वपूर्ण हैं। हजारों साल पहले मानव जाति असभ्य थी और जंगली जानवरों का जीवन जी रही थी। उन दिनों वे अन्य जंगली जानवरों की तरह जंगलों और गुफाओं में रह रहे थे। उन्हें गर्म गर्मी और सर्दी से बचाने के लिए उनके शरीर पर बाल थे, हालांकि बहुत घने और लंबे नहीं थे, उनकी आबादी में वृद्धि के साथ उनका जीवन काफी अनिश्चित और असुरक्षित था। उन्होंने खुद को पहले से ज्यादा सुरक्षित महसूस किया। अब वे कुछ मामलों में अधिक सभ्य और जानवरों की तरह कम दिखने लगे थे। यह उनकी बेहतर मानसिक व्यवस्था के कारण भी था। इसने उनके घरेलू जीवन की नींव रखी।

लेखक आनंद की विविधता के बारे में बताता है। वह बताते हैं कि जानवरों को संगीत, कविता का आनंद नहीं मिलता था। विज्ञान, फ़ुटबॉल आदि जिनका आनंद मनुष्य लेता है। इसका अर्थ है, हमारे बुद्धिमानों ने निश्चित रूप से हमें जानवरों की तुलना में बहुत अधिक विविधता प्राप्त करने में सक्षम बनाया है। लेकिन लेखक को पता है कि यह न तो संख्या है और न ही भोगों की बहुलता जिसने मनुष्य की महिमा की है। बल्कि यह हमारे बौद्धिक और नैतिक गुण थे, और हम जानवरों से ज्यादा जानते हैं यह एक सच्चाई है। झुण्ड के भीतर हम एक-दूसरे के प्रति अधिक मित्रवत थे, लेकिन झुण्ड के बाहर हमारे रवैये में हम किसी जानवर की तरह कम क्रूर नहीं थे।

जिन विचारों ने मानव जाति की सबसे अधिक मदद की और उनसे संबंधित थे, उन्हें दो प्रकारों में विभाजित किया जा सकता है- (i) वे जिन्होंने ज्ञान और तकनीक में योगदान दिया और (ii) वे जो नैतिकता और राजनीति से संबंधित थे। अपने ज्ञान और तकनीक से उन्होंने भाषा का परिचय दिया और यह धीरे-धीरे शुरू हुई। उन्होंने आगे आग का आविष्कार भाषा की शुरुआत से पहले या बाद में किया। लेखक के अनुसार पहले चरण में जंगली जानवरों को दूर रखने के लिए आग का इस्तेमाल किया जा सकता है। लेकिन समय के साथ उन्होंने आग को अन्य उद्देश्यों के लिए भी अधिक उपयोगी पाया। इसका उपयोग खाना पकाने के लिए भी किया जाता था और इस प्रकार खाना पकाने का लंबा इतिहास शुरू हुआ।

गाय और भेड़ जैसे घरेलू पशुओं ने मनुष्य के जीवन को सुखद और सुरक्षित बना दिया। कुछ मानवविज्ञानी मानते हैं कि लोगों ने इन जानवरों को समय देना शुरू कर दिया था, जो उनके धर्मों ने उन्हें पूजा करने के लिए सिखाया था। पशुपालन कृषि का आविष्कार था। लेखन की कला मानव जाति के अंतिम प्रागैतिहासिक आविष्कारों में पेश की गई थी। लेखन धीरे-धीरे विकसित हुआ और वर्तमान स्वरूप में जो कुछ भी है उसे बनने में हजारों साल लग गए।

Bihar Board Class 12 English Chapters and Poems Summary in English

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